Perforation and acoustics. The ceiling will not leak. Article number 34

27.03.2006 Perforation and acoustics
In the design of a number of areas, depending on their use or destination, there are special requirements for acoustics. Making good spatial and acoustic conditions taking into account the specifics of the premises, such as schools, banks, shopping malls, offices, restaurants, lounges, sports and gaming halls helps make the environment more comfortable for the people inside them.
Good acoustics significantly reduces noise (in offices, hospitals), improves the perception of speech sounds (in the conference and lecture halls), improves the characteristics of sound-spaces (concert halls).
The most common way to create good acoustics in the room is the installation of decorative elements - suspended cassettes on the ceiling and walls with a perforated surface with integrated insulation of the layer or not.
Thanks to its structure, metal perforated tape Geipel ®, complete with a special sound-absorbing liner, ideal for improving the room acoustics and reduce the reverberation time (sound attenuation).
The company Geipel Decken-und Profilsysteme GmbH in Germany produces cassettes with different types of perforation: hole diameter - 1.5 mm and above, the shape of the holes - circle, square, and others on request. Designers and engineers had designed cassette type "Shtrekmetall design", which is also equipped with an acoustic liner on request.
For tapes with all types of perforations, or type "Shtrekmetall design" was tested transmission loss. The results were, as shown by the chart, the proof of the high efficiency of such solutions with respect to acoustics.
An indicator of transmission loss is the sound absorption αw, which varies for cassettes Geipel ® from 0.50 to 0.90.
Since the degree of sound absorption strongly affected by the distance between the suspended acoustical ceiling and the decorated ceiling of the test it was found that for best results, mount the ceiling on the maximum distance of 400 mm. At a height of 400 mm indentation acoustical characteristics vary only slightly.
The suitability of a suitable design was verified by measurements in a reverberation chamber according to DIN EN 20 354.
The test results of metal ceilings Geipel ® in a perforated demonstrate optimized performance curve of the absorption in various applications. For example, the metal tape of a small area of ​​perforation and sound insulating layer provide successful solutions to create different spatial acoustic conditions, where the main emphasis is placed on regulating the reverberation time in the middle frequency range.
For an additional insulation layer of a suitable porous, absorbent material and varying the distance from the main ceiling can be greatly improved sound absorption characteristics of the room. Through this, you can create high-ceiling systems to optimally reduce the reverberation time, even in small spaces.
21.03.2006 Do not leak!
Water - not only the source of life, but also the sworn enemy of the builders. And this is understandable. After all, it is composed of a variety of salts, acids and alkalis, which even corrode the metal fittings. That is why the construction of buildings on waterproofing paying very much attention. Necessary to foresee the "pitfalls" and protect from contact with water all the elements of the building - from the foundation and finishing the roof.
Waterproofing - a set of measures for the protection of building structures against aggressive water and moisture. Ivan Romanov.
Carrying out waterproofing works should be provided at the design stage of the object. Only then will these measures really effective. The modern market offers a wide range of waterproofing materials for various activities - roll, tape, etc. obmazochnuyu Roll materials is a polymer-bitumen and synthetic membranes, which are used for waterproofing basements, roofs, etc. Mastics - liquid polymer-bitumen compositions cold application, designed to protect and restore the waterproofing roofing, waterproofing and construction joints, corrosion protection of metals, fire resistant, as well as for decorative surfaces. Plastering and repair compounds, modifiers solutions, water repellents, protivosolevye barriers - are materials with improved adhesion and durability characteristics that allow restoring concrete structures, restoring their strength, protection from chlorides and sulfates, as well as the adverse effects of cycles of "freeze-thaw". Consider nekotoryeiz these materials in more detail.
Waterproofing membrane - a component of the waterproofing, which has a wide range of applications. This material not only serves as a basis for the manufacture of artificial reservoirs, but also is used as a waterproofing layer during installation of the roof. In the Russian market are well represented waterproofing membrane Blackline TFS Danish company Monarflex, Elastocene Italian company INDEX, as well as materials firm Sika-Tgocal for waterproofing buildings and Carisma for roofing.
The modern market offers a wide range of waterproofing materials for various activities - roll, tape, etc. obmazochnuyu
The insulating film material geomembrane - absolutely non-toxic material, elastic, and at the same time strong, able to grow by 6-8 times and did not break, having operating temperature range from-80's to + 7O's. Because of these properties, and also because the geomembrane has high anti-corrosion and moisture-proof performance, stand against most chemicals and UV radiation, the film is widely ispolzuetsyakak in civil and industrial construction. The film is available in rolls of a width of 4 to 6 meters and is welded at the joint by the "hot wedge." In the Russian market the company "Petrodomuc" spredlagaet geomembrane German and Spanish, carries the laying and welding of the film at the facilities. Due to its environmental chistote geomembrane is actively used in the construction of artificial reservoirs, water storage, ponds, and geomembrane is a major waterproofing material for roofs.
Mineral compositions. By the mineral compositions are used to protect the front of the base and the negative effects of water and moisture are different obmazochnye materials and mastics cold application. They, in turn, are divided into teams and protivonapornoy protivokapillyarnoy waterproofing. The first task - to prevent contact between the foundation and walls of water, the second goal - to prevent the penetration of moisture into the material of which the building is constructed. The main varieties are waterproofing protivonapornoy obmazochnuyu, Okleechnaya and painting. To apply plastering hot pastes made from bitumen and filler, pure bitumen or mastic cold applications that are more into technology to use.
Waterproofing membrane - a component of the waterproofing, which has a wide range of applications. This material not only serves as a basis for the manufacture of artificial reservoirs, but also is used as a waterproofing layer during installation of the roof.
By choosing a particular material, it is necessary to pay attention to the type of soil. In dry soils outer surface of the basement walls is recommended to align with mortar and double-cover hot or cold asphalt mastic. Thus able to protect a building under construction on the penetration of soil moisture. In the already-built home, too, such a measure will be effective, but the cost will increase at the same time, as the need to provide access to the outer surface of the walls. Loams and clays have a high water capacity and very reluctant to part with their "own" moisture. In this case, the outer surface of the basement walls is recommended to plaster cement-lime mortar, and after drying, double-cover with hot bitumen. Cold as mastic can be put directly on the cleaned without the prior foundation grouting. In very wet soils in the slurry is introduced various additives, sealing rastvopy and concrete, for example SIKA1, or use special types of cement such as Hydro-C-BC Hydro or their equivalents. Although bitumen-containing materials are widespread because they are inexpensive and easy to use, but they have a significant disadvantage - a short life span. It is restricted to 5-6 years. In addition, asphalt loses its elasticity and becomes brittle already at 0 'C, and arising from this strain will inevitably lead to the appearance of cracks. Cover is torn or foliated. Therefore, bitumen-based materials are used, as a rule, only in cheap waterproofing projects using domestic technology and domestic materials. If it is first important quality and long-term guarantee on all work, you should select a contractor performing work on material leading foreign manufacturers.
Today, the market offers a lot of waterproofing materials, the surface of which is treated to enhance water resistance. These compositions are sold in liquid form, ready for use, and in the form of dry mixes. A wide range of waterproofing materials firm offers SIKA. Including one-component dry mixture of cement-based SIKA-101a. This rigid thin-layer multi-surface waterproofing application provides protection of underground rooms and cellars, as well as hydro (tanks, swimming pools, water tanks, etc.).
Ordering waterproofing, special attention must be paid to the choice of contractor. The use of imported materials always require strict compliance with the original application technologies developed by the manufacturer, so the work performed with the retreat of the proprietary technology and made no specially trained workers who can not spread the real long-term guarantee.
Highly elastic one-component polyurethane sealant Rabberfleks 55 sold in liquid form, ready for use. It is used as a waterproofing for foundations, basements, underground garages and the like, including a tie. Under the influence of atmospheric moisture Rabberfleks 55 cures. The result is a sturdy rubber-like film that can withstand extreme temperatures (-50 degrees) and retains high elasticity. Mastic is suitable for use in all climates, is highly resistant to tearing. Obmazochnye waterproofing system AQUAFIN company Schomburg allow to solve a wide range of issues. For example, AQUAFIN-1K (one-component) - a dry mixture of special cement, silica sand and additives. When mixed with water gives a pasty mass, which is applied to the protected poverhnostzhestkoy brush. After curing, a solid layer of waterproofing. Varies widely used for waterproofing concrete stucco surfaces, brick and masonry structures above and below ground as well as in hydraulic structures. The set includes a second component - the impact modifier UNIFLEX-B on the basis of oligomeric rubbers. In combination with the dry mixture waterproofing it provides a unique material for the protection of concrete buildings and structures.
We protivokapillyarnyh waterproofing materials other principle. The composition penetrates into the concrete surface, filling the pores and small cracks. Forming integrally with concrete, it blocks the penetration of water molecules. Thus protected, and concrete and steel reinforcement. Such compositions are used as the old and the new concrete, they can be applied to wet or freshly poured foundation. An important advantage of this material is that, in addition, it provides a waterproof breathable and thus concrete will "breathe."
The materials include a deep penetrating products of foreign companies PENETRON ISS Renetron lnternational Ltd, THORO (USA), VANDEX Vandex International Ltd. (Switzerland), HUREH CHEMICAL (Canada), OSMOSEAL (Italy), as well as compositions for injection into the "body" of concrete Sika Injektion. Among the Russian analogues can be called composition "AQUATRON-6", "Gidroteks" Company "Hydrotex - East" and "Lahti" Company "RASTRO SP B". Proceedings of the penetrating action significantly more expensive than polymer-materials, in addition to the Russian market often fake materials, which are issued for materials penetrating, but actually are not, and made their use waterproofing soon destroyed, so when they are selected to be particularly careful.